The Pheromone Revolution

The Pheromone Revolution

Effects on Sex, Confidence and Human Health

the1870s the noted French naturalist Jean-Henri

Fabre noted that male moths were flying for

miles around to visit a female moth caged

in his lab. Fabre speculated that the female

moth was emitting a chemical scent that was

attracting the males. Almost a century later,

in 1959, the German chemist Adolf Butenandt

ushered in the age of modern pheromone research

when he successfully isolated the active chemical,

bombykol, that proved so alluring to male

author Lewis Thomas examined the powerful

effect of this remarkable chemical messenger

on the male moth in his short essay, "A

messages are urgent, but they may arrive,

for all we know, in a fragrance of ambiguity.

"At home, 4 p.m. today," says

a female moth, and releases a brief explosion

of bombykol, a single molecule of which

will rattle the hairs of any male within

miles and send him driving upwind in a confusion

it is doubtful if he has an awareness of

being caught in an aerosol of chemical attractant.

On the contrary, he probably finds suddenly

that it has become an excellent day, the

weather remarkably bracing, the time appropriate

for a bit of exercise of the old wings,

a brisk turn upwind. En route, traveling

the gradient of bombykol, he notes the presence

of other males, heading in the same direction,

all in a good mood, inclined to race for

the sheer sport of it. Then, when he reaches

his destination, it may seem to him the

greatest piece of luck: "Bless my soul,

what have we here!" ("A Fear of

Pheromones," Lewis Thomas in The Lives

courtship and reproduction are among the most

beautiful, complex and baffling of all human

interactions. Why are we attracted to one

person, but not another? Do we really fall

in love at first sight? And how do we know

when the "chemistry" is right? The

processes that govern how, why and with whom

we fall in love have eluded and frustrated

modern research is beginning to shed light

on some of the mystery surrounding sexual

now convinced that chemical signals, invisible

to our five normal senses, play an important

role in not only how we select a mate, but

also whether we can bond and remain with that

partner over a lifetime. And as it turns out,

the long sought path to the human heart may

advertising employs an almost obscene range

of erotic imagery to grab our attention

and for good reason. Millions of years of

selective evolution have given modern humans

a brain that is hard-wired to respond to visual

sexual cues. Consequently, when we search

for a prospective mate our initial selection

is based on perceived visual attributes such

and social status. Once a suitable prospect

has passed inspection and been allowed to

approach to within arms length, a new

set of biologically produced chemicals begin

to exert a subtle yet profound effect on our

are sexual messenger molecules produced to

convey a subconscious message of sexual interest

the 1960s a group of anatomists at the University

of Utah began to investigate the chemistry

of human skin using cells recovered from used

arm and leg casts. During the course of their

work one of the researchers noticed something

chemicals where left open, the previously

contentious and aggressive demeanor of the

laboratory researchers began to give way to

a cheerful sense of good will and camaraderie.

Later, when these same vials were closed,

the scientists drifted back to their previous

the next 30 years scientists embarked on a

search for this odorless chemical with the

power to turn a group of grouchy lab workers

into a cooperative and energized team.

word pheromone comes from the Greek words

(to excite). Pheromones are complex organic

compounds utilized by all animals, from protozoa

to the higher primates, as a means of communication.

In complex animal societies specialized pheromones

for a number of functions. Some examples:

such as ants and bees use alarm pheromones

to trigger an instant and violent response

if a colony comes under attack.

territorial zones and to disperse members

of the group in the presence of a threat.

to inform others of the presence of food

specialized pheromones can serve a range of

play an identical role in all species

they convey sexual excitement and intent to

variety odors and scents are detected by cells

within the nasal cavity by the main olfactory

epithelium (MOE). Pheromones, on the other

hand, are perceived by a separate accessory

structure known as the Vomeronasal organ (VNO).

In 1813 the Danish anatomist Ludvig Jacobson

described his discovery of this organ, located

in the nasal cavity of mammals. The VNO has

been shown to be exclusively connected to

specialized centers of the limbic system.

believed to be a purely vestigial organ in

humans, research has confirmed the existence

of the VNO in humans. In one study in 1958,

histological examination of the nasal septum

revealed the presence of vomeronasal cavities

in approximately 70 percent of all adults.

able to clearly identify the presence of vomeronasal

organs in 100 percent of adult subjects. This

lead to the conclusion that the VNO is present

in adult humans, and that this specialized

chemosensory organ has evolved to do one thing:

have shown that the human VNO is connected

directly to the limbic system, that part of

the brain that is responsible for exploration,

flight or fight, for identifying with the

environment and reacting to it. The limbic

system is also responsible for controlling

emotional and behavioral patterns. As William

Regelson, M.D., describes it, "You can

tell when someone is paying attention or reacting

to you with a deep connection, because their

eyes glow. This is because they connected

with their limbic system. Youre really

limbic when youre in love your

eyes glow. If youre a religious fanatic,

your eyes glow. If someone is in love with

you, you can tell, because their eyes glow

theyve formed a deep limbic connection

with you. And this is why the eyes are, in

a very real sense, the seat of the soul. And

I think that pheromones are really the key

limbic stimulants involved in love and lovemaking."

the presence of a working pheromone receptor

(VNO) in humans was proven, the next step

lay in understanding how pheromones actually

work on humans. Unlike insects, humans do

not drop everything at the first whiff of

a few delicious carbon molecules and assume

the mating position. But for all our evolved

sophistication and Byzantine sexual cues and

responses, an accumulating body of data has

firmly established the working presence of

of the first indications that humans produce

and respond to pheromones was the discovery

that women living in close proximity tend

to synchronize menstrual cycles within a few

that chemicals produced in the armpits of

females at different phases of the menstrual

cycle influence the timing of their cycles.

In a 1988 study by Stern and McClintock, researchers

at specific intervals during their monthly

ovulation cycles. After the samples were treated

to render them odorless they were applied

above the upper lips of a second group of

female volunteers. The results were that the

onset and length of the ovulation cycles of

the second group of volunteers were altered

to synchronize with the first group.

speculate that the synchronization of menstrual

cycles is an evolutionary trait with two important

purposes: First, by closely timing their menstrual

cycles, women would reject all the men of

their group at the same time and force them

to go out to hunt. Second, by synchronizing

the menstrual and birthing cycles, women would

give birth at the same time, allowing them

to optimize available resources for the care

study, I think, really is the first definitive

study that shows that humans have pheromones,"

said McClintock at the conclusion of the study.

"We still need to know whether we use

them on a regular basis, but they are there."

and Immunity: The Smelly T-Shirt Study

is now recognized that pheromones play a role

in conveying the genetic makeup and health

of a prospective reproductive partner. Major

among the most diverse of all genes, constituting,

in essence, a genetic signature of the individual.

MHC genes help the body to recognize its own

healthy cells, to identify invading pathogens

genes also give each individual a unique odor

that can be detected. Among mice it is well

known that MHC genes play an important role

in mate selection. Inbred mice, identical

except for MHC genes, prefer the odor of closely

related nest mates. Once they enter puberty

these mice show a marked preference to mate

with mice whose MHC genes are most unlike

pregnant these mice revert to their early

preferences and return to nest with males

with similar MHC genes. Scientists speculate

that nesting with relatives ensures not only

help in nursing and raising the young but

also confers protection from strange and potentially

dangerous males. The preference for MCH-dissimilar

mates is also seen as important for reducing

the risks of inbreeding and genetic diseases.

see if MHC genes play a role in human mate

selection, Klaus Wedekind, a zoologist at

a unique experiment involving smelly T-shirts.

44 men who were screened to assure they carried

a wide array of MHC genes. Each man was given

a clean T-shirt and instructed to sleep in

the shirt for two nights to thoroughly saturate

shirts were then gathered and placed in cardboard

boxes with sniffing holes in the tops. Each

woman was brought into the lab at the midpoint

of their menstrual cycles and presented with

a choice of seven boxes to sniff. Three boxes

three from MHC-dissimilar males, and the last

box contained a clean shirt as a control.

The women were asked to smell the boxes and

rate them as smelling either pleasant or unpleasant.

The researchers discovered that the women

preferred the scent of men with dissimilar

MHC genes. Many of the women also commented

that the MHC-dissimilar shirts reminded them

of their boyfriends, both past and present.

purporting to contain pheromones have been

around for a number of years, each promising

and prowess. In fact many of these cosmetics,

packaged as perfumes and colognes, did contain

a real pheromone, called androstenone. Derived

from pig saliva, androstenone has been shown

to be extremely effective pheromone, causing

an almost immediate and uncontrollable mating

reaction if you happen to be a pig.

And though one may argue that humans often

behave in a piggish manner, thankfully we

do not respond to porcine pheromones.

real breakthrough in human pheromones had

to wait until 1986 when researchers at the

Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia

isolated and synthesized the first working

human pheromone. The result of this research

is now available as the first human-derived,

is packaged in a convenient roll-on applicator

that is used to gently apply a small amount

of human pheromone directly under the wearers

nose. Only a small amount of EroScent

is required, as it takes but a few molecules

to activate the limbic system. Since pheromones

dont have to travel through the bloodstream,

human VNO has been shown to be connected directly

to the limbic system, that part of the brain

that is responsible for exploration, flight

or fight, for identifying with the environment

and reacting to it. By applying EroScent

under the nose one is directly stimulating

ones own limbic system and keying into

the region of the brain that controls our

humans possess a highly refined sense of personal

hygiene. We bath or shower almost daily, removing

any trace of our natural pheromones. We drench

ourselves in deodorants and fragrances to

further mask any natural scent. And as if

to add insult to injury, we cover ourselves

from head to toe in clothes, blocking the

very skin that produces our natural pheromones.

In short, we do everything within our power

to hide or mask our sixth sense and short

circuit our ability to communicate chemically.

gives us back the ability to re-establish

a sense of chemical comfort and well-being

to Expect When You Use EroScent

by stimulating the limbic system of the wearer.

While there is a secondary effect on members

of the opposite sex, most of the effect takes

place in the person wearing EroScent.

a wide range of benefits, including:

to suffer a loss in self-confidence and

pheromone production. Both men and women

who describe themselves as feeling depressed

and "down in the dumps" report

an improved sense of well being and a more

positive and energetic outlook on life when

by the therapeutic benefits of human pheromones

in restoring sexuality and improving self-esteem,

are also looking into using human pheromones

to alleviate panic attacks and mood disorders.

study testing the human pheromones contained

three times a week. The women receiving

a significantly higher rate of sexual contact

with men than women using a placebo. A second

in 1998 found that men who received human

pheromones tended to also have more sexual

contact with women than the men who applied

works via the reproductive endocrine system

to enhance existing sexual cues and improve

chances for enjoying a satisfying romantic

life. One man reported that he and his spouse,

caught in the doldrums of a long-term marriage,

had drifted apart and were only having sex

on average about five times per year. "Since

Ive been using the pheromone straight,

try EroScent to test the results for

the people I work with were looking at me

and smiling more than usual. I finally realized

that it was me that I was making

more eye contact with them and sending a

message of confidence I didnt normally

test the effectiveness of pheromones in real-life,

ABC News conducted an impressive if somewhat

unscientific test in March of 1988. Two sets

of identical twins two sisters and

two brothers were taken to a popular

New York bar. Human pheromone was applied

to one of the twins in each pair, while the

other got plain witch hazel. Neither twin

knew what they received. The only rules for

the test were that they were to trade places

throughout the evening, and they couldnt

make the first move toward contacting other

results for the men came out about even

a handful of women approached each of them.

This isnt unusual, as fewer women will

approach a strange man in a bar. But the results

for the women were more dramatic. Shari, the

twin wearing the witch hazel, was approached

by 11 different men over the course of the

evening. But Stasea, wearing the human pheromone,

was chatted up by 30 different men, nearly

three times as many as her identical twin

noted that "People didnt even want

to talk to me, and my sister got all the attention.

reaction to the pheromone was that "They

didnt just talk, they were ENTHRALLED

the report, ABC News Medical Corespondent

Dr. Nancy Snyderman asked "about the

situation in the bar," to which reporter

Bill Ritter said "The results astonished

us. We cant deny what we saw happen

factors influence our attractiveness to others.

social status and character are but a few

components known to affect ones perceived

attractiveness by a potential mate. Only recently

have researchers been able to uncover the

unseen chemistry that controls our mating

odors that comprise the human "sixth

in EroScent directly energize the limbic

system of the wearer to boost confidence,

stimulate the libido, enhance romantic possibilities

and contribute to an increased sense of well-being.

Human Sexual PheromonesFrom Health Freedom NutritionGo to catalog page for this product.

The Journal of Continuing Psychiatric Education,

MK, "On the nature of mammalian and human

pheromones." Ann N Y Acad Sci, Nov. 1998

C, Furi S. "Body odor preferences in

men and women: Do they aim for specific MHC

Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Oct 1997; 264

C, Seebeck T, Bettens F, Paepke AJ. "MCH-dependent

mate preferences in humans." Proc R Soc

Lond B Biol Sci, June 1995; 260 (1359): 245-9

News, "Sniffing Out a Mate" from

the Pulse Program. Host Nancy Snyderman, M.D.,

on ABC News Saturday Night with Bill Ritter,